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► Who Signed The Helsinki Agreement - HYPESOUL

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– exchanges and visits, as well as other direct contacts and communications between scientists and technologists, on the basis of mutual agreement and other consultation, presentation and research agreements, including the use of laboratories, scientific libraries and other documentation centres, They also refrain in all circumstances from any other military act or political constraint , economic or otherwise aimed at subordinate their own interest to the exercise, by another participating State, of the rights inherent in its sovereignty and, therefore, to guarantee benefits of any kind. – regular agreements or programmes on the organisation of student exchanges, international youth seminars, vocational training courses and foreign language studies, In addition to creating a climate conducive to the development of dissident movements in the communist world, which demanded more freedom, democracy and an end to totalitarian repression, the agreements demonstrate that diplomacy and negotiation can change the world. As Ford put it, the agreements saw that some of the most closed and repressive regimes met a public obligation to grant their citizens “greater freedom and freedom of movement,” which served as a “gauge” by which the world could measure “how well they lived up to the stated intentions.” [19] Ford and others in Helsinki were convinced that normalization of relations with the Soviet Union would not limit discussion issues to those of defence, but would also include cultural exchanges and trade, which could reduce tensions. “Certainly,” ford says, “is in the best interest of the United States and peace in the world.” [19] The cultural and commercial encounters made possible by the agreements helped each party to see the other side as another human being, with artistic and other interests. Stereotypes of the other as “enemy” became more difficult to bear. A prominent Soviet scholar called the agreements “the beginning of a new phase in international relations, which results in the strengthening of international ties and cooperation in the economic, scientific and cultural fields.” [20] Yale argues that it was primarily cultural exchange that ended communism in the Soviet Union. Over a 35-year period, such an exchange took place “within the framework of agreements” such as the Helsinki Agreements, which “were concluded with the Soviet government” and “improved US defence and intelligence spending.” [21] Research on new technologies and equipment, including reducing energy consumption and reducing or eliminating waste; The final act of Helsinki was an agreement signed by 35 nations that closed the conference on security and cooperation in Europe in Helsinki (Finland). The multifaceted law addressed a number of important global issues and had a significant impact on the Cold War and US-Soviet relations. – the promotion of direct contacts and communications between people engaged in cultural activities, including, if necessary, contacts and communications made on the basis of specific agreements.

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